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Key Messages 
Rail infrastructure is exposed to different climate impacts, e.g. heat, high precipitation and flooding. Extreme heat may lead to rail buckling. During extreme temperatures, trains would have to run slower or would face the risk of derailment. Adapting the rail system to cope with great temperature variability will include an adjustment of the stress free temperature or even the use of other steel types. Stressing is a technique to avert track problems like fracturing or buckling at the temperature extremes. Stress free temperature is 75% of the expected maximum temperature of the region and should be adjusted to increasing temperature, so that stressing is not necessary. Maintenance includes many different possibilities to reduce infrastructure vulnerability that is caused by infrastructure in bad condition. Some examples: Maintenance of rail track (including replacement in time) reduces rail buckling during heat periods. Maintenance of embankments and drains guarantees the functioning of these systems if heavy rains or floods occur. Frequent inspection of bridges (especially corrosion) reduces damage and destruction risk due to heavy rains.
Climate risks considered