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Soft coastal defence
A new paradigm of giving space to water and using natural landscapes to aid coastal defense infrastructure is emerging, e.g. allowing the sea to invade former dune slacks in certain sections of the coast, the strategic construction of reefs along a coastline (e.g. beach nourishment) is likely to reduce the strength of waves, and thus the erosion of the coastline by the sea.
Data source Author Country Climate risks considered Methodological approach
Assessing sea level rise costs and adaptation benefits under uncertainty in Greece Kontogianni, A., Tourkolias, C.H., Damigos, D. and Skourtos, M. Greece Flooding, Sea level rise

A robust decision-making analysis was applied to Bulkheads, Revetments and geotextiles, Replenishment and Construction of groins - the Benefit-Cost ratio ranges between 0,2 and 4.

Climate change uncertainty: building flexibility into water and flood risk infrastructure Gersonius, B., Ashly, R., Pathirana, A. and Zevenbergen, C. Netherlands Flooding

Cost-effectiveness analysis of flood protection at Dutch North Sea Coast

Economics of adaptation to climate change. Ghana. World Bank Group Ghana Sea level rise

Cost assessment of beach nourishment

Economics of adaptation to climate change. Samoa. World Bank Group Samoa Sea level rise

Cost assessment of beach nourishment for different climate scenarios

Exchange of experiences and comparative analysis of Integrated Coastal Management (OURCOAST) OURCOAST Project team Greece, Netherlands Sea level rise, Flooding

A Cost assessment was conducted to estimate assess the costs of detached submerged breakwaters and beach nourishment to contrast heavy erosion (up to 30 m) to protect from flood in Greece. (Soft measure) Furthermore, in the Netherlands "Sand motor" to counter beach erosion were used: by depositing large quantities of sand in strategic places along the coast, the periodic nourishments can be avoided.

Investment and financial flows relevant to the development of an effective and appropriate international response to Climate Change UNFCCC Global Sea level rise, Increased storminess

Investment and financial flow analyses on a global scale. Top-down estimation.

Kosten und Nutzen von Anpassungsmassnahmen an den Klimawandel: Analyse von 28 Anpassungsmassnahmen in Deutschland (Costs and benefits of adaptation measures: Analysis of 28 adaptation measures in Germany) Tröltzsch, J., Görlach, B., Lückge, H., Peter, M., Sartorius, C. Germany Flooding, Increased storminess

Cost-benefit assessment of beach nourishment

Shaping climate-resilient development. A framework for decision making ECA Samoa Sea level rise

Cost-benefit analysis of different coastal adaptation measures, including beach nourishment and sandbagging