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Dike and embankment reinforcement and heightening
The design of existing dikes can be modified to fullfil different purposes. Re-enforcing dikes and dams can increase their stability and resistance against dike breaching, e.g. by strengthening the inner core of the dike, or improving characteristics of the dike's surface that contribute to the overall stability of the dike. Dikes can also be re-enforced by heightening, broadening or by adding spatial components. Embankments also need to be adjusted or the heightened.
Data source Author Country Climate risks considered Methodological approach
Adaptation Strategies in the Transport Sector‖ Deliverable 4 of the research project WEATHER (Weather Extremes: Impacts on Transport Systems and Hazards for European Regions) Doll, C. et al Europe Sea level rise, Increased storminess, Flooding

Cost assessment for placing movable barriers on the water access routes to Rotterdam port and construction of flood gates in different cities, e.g. Venice, London, at Oosterschelde

Adaptive flood risk management under climate change uncertainty using Real Options and optimization. Woodward, M.; Kapelan, Z.; Gouldby, B. UK Flooding

Real option analyses were conducted to assess 79 defenses, including vertical walls and rip-rap and rigid embankments

An integrated approach to flood risk management: A case study of Navaluenga (Central Spain). Ballesteros-Cánovas, J.A., Sanchez-Silva, M., Bodoque, J.M. and Díez-Herrero, A. Spain Flooding

Cost-benefit analysis of flood protection measures (e.g. small dams and storm tank) in the Spanish city of Navaluenga

Cities and flooding. A guide to integrated urban flood risk management for the 21st Century. Jha, A.K., Bloch, R. and Lamond, J. Poland Flooding

Modernization of the existing floodway system (was 200 years). It includes polders, diversion channels and protects the city and the surrounding towns with total 2.5 Mio. people.

Climate change and coastal flooding in Metro Boston: impacts and adaptation strategies Kirshen, P.; Knee, K.; & Ruth, M. USA Sea level rise, Flooding

Case Study in the Boston metropolitan area, Calculation of different scenarios for a combination of green approaches (floodplain management), structual approaches (flood-proofing of homes) and retreat

Economic evaluation of structural and non-structural flood risk management measures: examples from the Mulde River. Meyer, V.; Priest, S.; Kuhlicke, C. Germany Flooding

Analysis of flood protection measures such as a ring dike and protection wall at the river Mulde

Exchange of experiences and comparative analysis of Integrated Coastal Management (OURCOAST) OURCOAST Project team Bulgaria, Netherlands, Cyprus Sea level rise, Flooding

Cost assessment was conducted to estimate the costs and benefits of flood protection. Different dikes in combination with flood walls and jetties, beach park, lagoon and sluice gates, and  nourishments. A dual dike system with multi-functional coastal defence zones is analysed. As flood and erosion protection, offshore breakwaters and shelter are assessed. Hard measures are analysed.The different measures cover hard measures and a combination of hard and soft measures.

Investment and financial flows relevant to the development of an effective and appropriate international response to Climate Change UNFCCC Global Sea level rise, Increased storminess

Investment and financial flow analyses on a global scale. Top-down estimation.

Klimaprogramm-Bayern 2020, Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen, Anpassung an den Klimawandel, Forschung und Entwicklung Initiative klimafreundliches Bayern Germany Flooding

Cost assessment of Flood Protection Program in Bavaria

Køge Bay (Denmark) Sistermans, P. & Nieuwenhuis, O. Denmark Sea level rise, Flooding

Cost assessment to estimate costs for a beach park and lagoon, in a large reclaimed land. It includes nourishments for new coast profile, groynes, and a system of dykes and sluice gates to solve flooding in Copenhagen.

Large scale assessment of the flood risk and the effects of mitigation measures along the Elbe River De Kok, J.L. & Grossmann, M. Germany Flooding

Cost-benefit analysis for measures along the river Elbe, including dike heightening and shifting

Lee catchment flood risk assessment and management study. Draft catchment flood risk management plan OPW, Cork City Council & Cork County Council Ireland Sea level rise, Flooding

Multi-criteria analyses were conducted to assess flood protection via: dikes, permanent flood walls/embankments, sea walls, proactive maintenance of existing flood defence embankment, optimised operation of dams to manage fluvial and or tidal risk. The assessments are done for different cities and regions in Ireland.

Maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse Waterveiligheid 21e eeuw Kind, J. Netherlands Flooding

Cost-benefit analyses were conducted to assess Dyke heightening at different parts of Netherlands.

Multi-criteria decision analysis in adaptation decision-making: A flood case study in Finland. Porthin, M., Rosqvist, T., Perrels, A. and Molarius, R. Finland Flooding

Multi-criteria analysis of stronger embankments in the city of Pori

Natural Disasters in Australia – Reforming mitigation, relief, and recovery arrangements Australian Government, Department of Transport and Regional Services Australia Flooding

Cost assessment of construction of levee gates: Good practice in Australia: steel sliding gates have been implemented at two railway openings in the Launceston levee.

Ranking sources of uncertain-ty in flood damage modelling: a case study on the cost-benefit analysis of a flood mitigation project inthe Orb Delta, France Saint-Geours, N., Grelot, F., Bailly, J.-S. and Lavergne, C. France Flooding

Cost-benefit-analysis of levee heightening, seawall, channel improvement, rainwater harvesting channels, drainage ditches, etc. in the Orb delta

Risk based evaluation of economical efficiency of flood control measures Fošumpaur, P. and Satrapa, L. Czech Republic Flooding

Cost-benefit analysis of flood protection in North Bohemia, including as benefit direct property damage

Sigmaplan: Maatschappelijke Kosten-Batenanalyse Projectconsortium MKBA Sigmaplan Belgium Flooding

A Cost benefit analysis was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of dikes and a flood control plain to enhace safety, industry and to foster ecosystems benefits and recreation (positive Benefit-Cost-Ratio of about 5).

Urban flood protection post-project appraisal in England and Wales Thompson, P.M., Wigg, A.H. and Parker, D.J. UK Sea level rise, Flooding

Cost benefit analysises for building protection with the help of different measures, such as embankments, channel realignment, drainage improvement, tidal defences,  new weirs and flood wall (improvements). All alternatives are hard infrastructure and have a positive Benefit-Cost-Ratio.