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Water reuse
To collect wastewater, apply some form of purification, and re-use it for non-drinking purposes
Data source Author Country Climate risks considered Methodological approach
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: Quantify the Cost of Impacts and Adaptation Metroeconomica UK Water scarcity & droughts

Two case-studies in SE England and SE Scotland. Net benefit estimated as difference between (a) the economic losses to households of restricted supplies and (b) resource costs of removing deficits. It used existing studies to estimate the economic losses to households for foregone water use because of the anticipated water deficit up to 2100 using a revealed preference approach. The report then assessed the cost of addressing this water deficit, using information on the range of options available for managing the public water supply, and by constructing indicative cost-yield curves.

Adapting to climate change with water savings and water reuse Anderson, J. M. Australia Water scarcity & droughts

Case Study for Sydney, including a set of adaptation options:  leakage reduction program, water efficiency labelling, rebates for rainwater tank, recycled water for gardening/toilet; flushing; water storage,, water transfer. Cost functions used and added to the stochastic analysis model to record investment and operating costs for drought contingency works and cost to consumers of water restrictions during droughts, measured using loss of consumer utility function.

Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: A case study on water resources management in the East of England. Dessai, S.; Hulme, M. UK Water scarcity & droughts

Robust decision-making analysis - The framework is applied to a case study of water resources management in the East of England, to the Anglian Water Services’ 25 year Water Resource Plan (WRP). Includes local sensitivity analysis of the various elements of the modelling framework in order to determine whether or not a decision to adapt to climate change is sensitive to uncertainty in those elements.

Climate warming and water management adaptation for California Tanaka, Stacy K.; Zhu, Tingju; Lund, Jay R.; Howitt, Richard E.; Jenkins, Marion W.; Pulido, Manuel A.; Tauber, Melanie; Ritzema, Randall S.; Ferreira, Ines C. USA Water scarcity & droughts

Cost and damage assessment of different adaptation options for California, use of twelve distinct climate warming scenarios; uses integrated model (Large-scale economic-engineering optimisation model of water supply, CALVIN). that examines dynamic interaction between water uses

Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application Ward, P.J.; Strzepek, K.M.; Pauw, W.P.; Brander, L.M.; Hughes, G.A.; Aerts, J.C.J.H. Developing countries Water scarcity & droughts

Costs of adaptation are defined as the cost of providing enough raw water to restore future industrial and municipal water demand to the levels that would have existed without climate change.

Prioritisation Method for Adaptation Measures to Climate Change in the Water Sector Máñez, M.; Cerdà, A. Spain Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analyses: Calculates private, environmental and social costs and benefits for a case study on water reuse via constructed wetlands in Catalonia. Includes positive and negative externalities: water  gains, pollution savings, CO2-equivalent emissions, impact per capita affected, sludge valuation
Highly profitable (positive NPV), especially due to environmental values

Prioritisation Method for Adaptation Measures to Climate Change in the Water Sector Máñez, M.; Cerdà, A. Spain Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analyses: Calculates private, environmental and social costs and benefits for a case study on water reuse via waste water treatment plant for delivery to industrial and urban (not-drinking) water use in Sabadell, Catalonia. Includes positive and negative externalities: water  gains, pollution savings, CO2-equivalent emissions, impact per capita affected, sludge valuation
Not profitable (negative NPV), especially no additional environmental benefits could be included. But measure still important to consider compared to water gains of other measures

Report on the Estimated Cost of Adaptation Options Under Climate Uncertainty Skourtos, M. Kontogianni, A., Tourkolias, C. Europe Water scarcity & droughts

CEA with Monte Carlo techniques and fuzzy sets analysis. A CEA algorithm was developed to undertake the cost-effectiveness evaluation of the examined adaptation measures based on ranking of their unitary cost estimates. The implementation of the CEA algorithm required costing information for each of the examined adaptation measures.

Water resource planning under climate uncertainty in London Darch, G.; Arkell, B.;Tradewell, J. UK Water scarcity & droughts

Assess effects of long term climate uncertainty on investment planning in London, including impact on reliability of resources, on cost-effectiveness of supply-demand options, and on investment decisions and robustness of option programmes. Draws on existing data and techniques for extrapolating for future climate scenarios and simple re-assessment of costs and benefits.