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Additional water abstraction, distribution and treatment
To abstract additional water from the aquatic environments and groundwater in order to meet water demand during whole year and low flows and to improve treatment of wastewater with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of wastewater release during low flows and droughts.
Data source Author Country Climate risks considered Methodological approach
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: Quantify the Cost of Impacts and Adaptation Metroeconomica UK Water scarcity & droughts

Two case-studies in SE England and SE Scotland. Net benefit estimated as difference between (a) the economic losses to households of restricted supplies and (b) resource costs of removing deficits. It used existing studies to estimate the economic losses to households for foregone water use because of the anticipated water deficit up to 2100 using a revealed preference approach. The report then assessed the cost of addressing this water deficit, using information on the range of options available for managing the public water supply, and by constructing indicative cost-yield curves.

Adapting to Climate Change: Water Management for Urban Resilience Muller, M. Africa Water scarcity & droughts

Cost esimation of adpapting existing urban water infrastructure in Africa, based on unitary costs from project experiences. Adapting of existing infrastructure and costs of new developments are estimated.

Economic Impacts of Rapid Glacier Retreat in the Andes Vergara, W.; Deeb, A. M.; Valencia, A. M.; Bradley, R. S.; Francou, B.; Zarzar, A.; Griinwaldt, A.; Haeussling, S. M. Ecuador Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analysis for Quito in Ecuador. Using a cost-function approach for the next 30 years.

Prioritisation Method for Adaptation Measures to Climate Change in the Water Sector Máñez, M.; Cerdà, A. Spain Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analyses: Calculates private, environmental and social costs and benefits for a case study on emergency groundwater wells in Valencia. Includes positive and negative externalities: water  gains, CO2-equivalent emissions, impact per capita affected,
Very profitable in short term (positive NPV) but more investments are needed in high impact scenarios.

Water resource planning under climate uncertainty in London Darch, G.; Arkell, B.;Tradewell, J. UK Water scarcity & droughts

Assess effects of long term climate uncertainty on investment planning in London, including impact on reliability of resources, on cost-effectiveness of supply-demand options, and on investment decisions and robustness of option programmes. Draws on existing data and techniques for extrapolating for future climate scenarios and simple re-assessment of costs and benefits.