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Adaptation of power stations and electricity grid
In different countries additional energy infrastructure/power stations are necessary as with the existing power station, hydropower plants, etc. gaps for energy production are projected, due to different climate impacts e.g. water scarcity and droughts. For thermal power plants, cooling tower and dual systems can be regarded as a form of adaptation to limited cooling water availability. In the case of dual systems the traditional water cooling is supplemented by cooling tower systems which can also work under higher ambient temperatures. Transmission grids are especially effected by extreme storm events. Because of their outstanding importance for population and industries grids have to be adapted to a higher intensity of storms. Especially pylons and lines should be strenghtened regarding the different climate impacts. Furthermore, the location of power lines should be choosen including area's storm predictions and maybe in some cases lines need to be relocated.
Data source Author Country Climate risks considered Methodological approach
Adaptation Measures in the EU: Policies, Costs, and Economic Assessment. Altvater, S. et al Europe Heatwave, Increased storminess, Flooding

Cost-benefit analyses of additional cooling of thermal power plants in EU27, adjustments of thermal power plants to storm surges and water shortages, adaptation of electricity grids in EU

Adaptation of California's Electricity Sector to Climate Change Vine, E. California Heatwave

Assessment of increased resilency of energy production, higher levels of insulation

Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives. De Bruin, K. et al. Netherlands Heatwave

Cost-benefit and Multi-criteria analysis is carried out to categorize and rank promising and feasible adaptation options, including development of cooling towers

An assesment of economic and social impacts of climate change on the energy sector in the Caribbean Martin,R., Gomes,C., Alleyne, D., Willard, P. Caribbean Heatwave, Water scarcity & droughts

Assessment of investment costs for improved and additional renewable energy projects

Climate Change and Hydropower, Impact and Adaptation Costs: Case Study Kenya Droogers, P. Kenya Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analysis of additional water reservoir for hydroenergy generation

Climate Risk and Adaptation in the Electric Power Sector Asian Development Bank Asia Heatwave

Cost assessment for adaptation of nuclear power stations, expected efficiency losses are small but costs assessed for additional cooling towers and modifications to cooling water inlets at coastal locations.

Climate Vulnerability Assessments. An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania’s Power Sector ESMAP Albania Heatwave, Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analysis of additional/improved  power stations (gas, wind, solar hydroelectric (small/large)) to close the energy shortage created by climate change

Economic impact assesment of climate change in key sectors in Nepal IDS NEPAL, PAC and GCAP Nepal Heatwave, Water scarcity & droughts

Assessment of additional investment needed for adaptation in the hydro-power sector

Economics of adaptation to climate change. Ethopia. World Bank Group Ethopia Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analysis for additional dams and power stations

Economics of adaptation to climate change. Ghana. World Bank Group Ghana Water scarcity & droughts

Assessment of adjusted energy mix especially reduce dependence on a single source of energy and diversify energy mix

Economics of adaptation to climate change. Samoa. World Bank Group Samoa Flooding, Increased storminess

Cost assessment of revision of design standards and associated planning requirements to ensure that electricity infrastructure are capable of coping with the peak wind speeds and precipitation

Electricity sector: adaptation to heatweaves Aivalioti, S. USA Heatwave

Assessment of heat-related efficiency standards, cooling technology standards, and siting requirements, adjustments at power stations (using heat-resistant technology, water recirculating  systems  or  air-cooling  technology) and Grid modernization.

Energy Infrastructure risks and adaptation efforts GAO USA Increased storminess

Assessment of adaptative measures such as  hardening (physical changes to make particular pieces of infrastructure less susceptible to storm related damage) or improving resiliency (increasing the ability to recover quickly from damage to facilities’components or to any of the external systems on which they depend).

Kosten und Nutzen von Anpassungsmassnahmen an den Klimawandel: Analyse von 28 Anpassungsmassnahmen in Deutschland (Costs and benefits of adaptation measures: Analysis of 28 adaptation measures in Germany) Tröltzsch, J., Görlach, B., Lückge, H., Peter, M., Sartorius, C. Germany Flooding, Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit assessments of (1) protection of electricity grid against extreme events and (2) cooling of thermal power plants

Least-cost adaptation options for global climate change impacts on the Brazilian electric power system. Frossard, A., de Lucena, P., Schaeffer, R., Szklo, A. S. Brazil Water scarcity & droughts

Assessment of additional and adjusted hydroelectric power stations

Shaping climate-resilient development. A framework for decision making ECA Tanzania Heatwave, Flooding, Water scarcity & droughts

Cost-benefit analysis of adapted and diversified energy mix including additional renewable energy sources, raising level of dams and improved hydro turbine efficiency